Technology

Tire Basic

Types of Tires

Types of tires fulfill certain specific application goals.  All categories of tires achieve the basics, but with couple or several functions particularly well.  Find the right tire for your specific needs.

Classification According to Vehicle

Classification According to Vehicle

(1) Bias Tire
Layers of one ply cord material are placed on the tire carcass diagonally from one tire bead to the other at angles of about 40° to the centerline of the tread. The lengthy research and development period have given this tire an overall steady performance and stiff sidewall. With the advent of the radial tire however, the bias tire is now used much less frequently.

(2) Radial Tire
A radial tire uses a cord angle of 90 degrees. That is, the cord material runs in a radial or direct line from one bead to the other across the tread. In addition, a radial tire has a belt overwrap under the tread surface to provide greater structural stability. The belt overwrap of a radial tire distortion while the radial structure enables high speed driving.

Note : Belted Bias Tire
A radial tire-like belt is attached to a bias tire carcass. The belt increases the stiffness of the improves traction for better steering and stability. However, the belted bias tire is generally product from the transition of a bias structure to radial structure and is not widely used.

(3) Tubeless Tire
As cars became faster, the tubeless tire was developed to protect drivers and cars from the dangers of flat tire accidents while driving at high speeds. Instead of using a tube, a lining (inner liner) of special rubber with low air permeability inside the tire prevents air leaks from the tire and rim. This means that even if a nail punctures the tire while on the move, air pressure will not be lost very rapidly. However, careful tire maintenance is still necessary as there is no tire that does not go flat. In addition, there are tubeless tires that use airtight, highly binding cement on the inside of the inner liner to decrease air leakage even further.

Advantages of a Tubeless Tire
- Maintains air pressure
- Sudden air leakage does not occur even with puncture
- Improved heat emission while driving because air inside the tire   is in direct contact with rim
- Less maintenance or mishaps with tube
- Increased operation efficiency with no tube assembly

Disadvantages of a Tubeless Tire
- Separation occurs if crack appears inside tire bead
- Air leakage in the case of imperfect tire-rim assembly or disfiguration in the rim flange. In particular, caution is needed when driving on unpaved roads as rocks and other debris may damage the rim flange and cause air leakage.

Classification According to Vehicle

(1) Summer Tire
As a tire for use in seasons without snow (spring, summer, fall), the summer or general tire is optimized for reduced noise, smooth driving and safe handling at high speeds.

(2) All Season Tire
Developed to relieve the difficulty of changing from summer tires to winter ones in regions with short snow seasons, the all season has more tread kerfs than the summer tire.

(3) Winter Tire
Winter tires are used widely for passenger cars, small trucks, light trucks and truck & buses. The use of winter tires is firmly established in snowy regions. Generally, the treads of winter tires are divided into small blocks to maximize driving performance with the added propulsion capability of the lug design and the rib design's prevention of side slippage. Winter tires provide good steering and are designed to have high braking and tractive force in snow. These characteristics are due to the treads with deep grooves which aggressively grab onto soft snow. When driving with winter tires, the snow that is stuck in the grooves of the tread is compressed in an up and down direction and hardened to form a firm snow pillar. If winter tires are used in seasons without snow, wear occurs faster than for regular tires so it is more economical to change to regular tires once winter is over.

01.Studded Winter Tire
While winter tires perform better on icy roads than regular tires, they cannot provide major propulsion capability, braking capability and prevention of side slippage. To improve driving performance on icy roads, steel studs were embedded onto winter tires. Studded winter tires have the following two requisites:
- Studs must be firmly fixed to the tread and not damage the tread
- Stud pins must always protrude from tread surface at a reasonable level

 

02. Studless Winter Tire
While studded snow tires perform well on icy, frozen roads, the studs tend to damage roads and cause debris.
While studded winter tires perform well on icy, frozen roads, the studs tend to damage roads and cause debris.
Due to such problems, use of the studded tire has been reconsidered every year and eventually, the studless tire was born.
As its name says, the studless tire is a tire without studs but one which shows maximized driving performance on slippery, frozen roads. Compared to existing winter tires, its snow capabilities are improved to near those of studded tires.

03. Principle of Winter Tire
When a tire turns, the snow pillar puts up resistance in order not to be cut out of the tread groove. This arbitrary resistance the basic principle linked to the winter tire's performance.

ㆍRubber that remains soft in cold temperatures
Following advances in rubber technology, a special rubber is used that remains soft and pliable in the coldest temperatures to make it stickier on snow or ice.

ㆍCan be driven on all roads
Performance must be good on icy, snowy roads in winter

Best Good Regular
Type Pattera characteristics Examlpe of basic pattern Main application Main application
Studded tire
Studless tire

Classification According to Vehicle

(1) Regular Tire
Also called a ground tire that is not for emergency use.

(2) All Season Tire
When a regular tire has been damaged by a flat or other reason and cannot be used, the emergency tire may be used temporarily. Emergency tires can save trunk space and reduce the weight of the car. There are two types of emergency tires:
(a) Foldable emergency tires
(b) T-type emergency tires
Emergency tires are manufactured only for use in emergencies and cannot be used at speeds of over 80km/h. The pneumatic pressure has to be maintained at 60psi and the air pressure should be checked at least once a month.

(3) Run Flat Tire
Even when the air pressure within the tire reaches zero due to damage such as a flat, this tire can be used to drive 80km at 80km/h speed to a location where a tire change can be made.



Classification According to Pattern

With the exception of certain special tires, various characteristics exist for tire treads (the part of the tire that meets the road). These characteristics are becoming more complicated as applications grow more diverse with the development of roads and vehicles.

Type Pattera characteristics
Performance Improved driving and braking power
Prevention of side slippage
Steering safety
Increased economy (reduced wear, gas cost)
Resistance against heat generation by tire
Decreased noise, enhanced ride
External appearance Improved product value (smartness, style, sturdiness)

(1) Kerf
Kerf is a small slot molded into treads to improve braking capability or prevent. It is particularly useful on wet road surfaces.


Type Pattera characteristics Examlpe of basic pattern Main application
Rib Advantages
  • Low rolling resistance and heat generation
  • High resistance to side slippage, good
    steering and safety
  • Less vibration and good rideness
Disadvantages
  • Relatively lower braking, driving power
  • Grooves are sensitive to fatigue
tire
  • Paved roads, high speeds
  • Mainly used for passenger cars and buses as well as light trucks
Lug Advantages
  • Good driving, braking power
  • Good for unpaved roads
Disadvantages
  • Relatively higher rolling resistance
    (low fuel economy)
  • Relatively greater noise
  • Relatively lower registance to side
    slippage
tire
  • Regular roads, unpaved roads
  • Used for trucks,buses, light trucks. Most construction vehicles and industrial vehicles use the lug type
Rib-lug Advantages
  • Good steering and safety due to use of
    both rib and lug patterns
  • Good for vehicles that use both paved and
    unpaved roads
Disadvantages
  • Greater wear on ends of lugs
  • Rips in rib grooves
  • Lower driving, braking power than lug
    type
tire
  • Paved, unpaved roads
  • Used for trucks, buses
Block Advantages
  • Good propulsion, braking
  • Good braking, steering, safety good in
    snow & mud
Disadvantages
  • Wears faster than rib or lug types
  • High rolling resistancee
tire
  • Snow tire
  • Used for sand service vehicles
Asymmetrical Advantages
  • Uniform contact area
  • Good wear and braking
  • No need to rotate tires
Disadvantages
  • Not in much use
  • Little compatibility with other sizes
tire
  • Passenger use tire(high speed)
  • Some trucks
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