Tire Basic

Structure of Tires

Comparable to an engine, a tire, although simple in ultimate form, is a complicated and multi-component 'super structure'. All the individual parts work seamlessly together to produce the final driving results for our drivers and passengers.
The structure of a tire and part names / Close-up of a passenger car bead

Tread (Part that comes in direct contact with the road)

This thick layer of rubber provides the interface between the tire and the road. Wear-resistant rubber is used to protect the carcass and belt against fractures and impacts and to deliver a long driving life.

Shoulder (Shoulder of the tire)

Located between the tread and sidewall, the shoulder rubber is the thickest so that the design must allow for the easy diffusion of heat generated within the tire while driving.

Sidewall (Side of the tire)

The part between the shoulder and bead, the flexible sidewall protects the carcass and enhances the ride. A tire’s type, size, structure, pattern, manufacturing company, product name and various characters are indicated here.

Bead (Part that comes in contact with the rim)

The bead attaches the tire to the rim and wraps the end of the cord fabric. Comprised of the bead wire, core, flipper and other parts, the bead is generally designed to be slightly tight around the rim so that in the case of a sudden drop in inflation pressure, the tire will not fall off the rim.

Breaker or Belt (Layers between the tread and carcass)

As the most important framework of a tire, the entire inner layer of cord fabric is called the carcass. The carcass acts to support air pressure, vertical load and absorb shocks.

Breaker or Belt (Layers between the tread and carcass)

The breaker is a cord layer placed between the carcass and the tread in order to protect the carcass of a bias tire. The breaker reduces shocks, prevents rips or injury of the tread from reaching the carcass directly while also stopping the separation between the rubber layer and the carcass.
The belt is a strong reinforcement found between the tread and the carcass in a radial or belted bias tire. It functions much like the breaker but also increases tread rigidity by tightly winding about the carcass.

Inner liner

The inner liner is made of a layer of rubber that resists air diffusion and replaces the inner tube within a tire.
Generally made of a synthetic rubber called butyl, or a rubber of the polyisoprene variety, the inner liner maintains the air inside the tire.
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